Common English name: Sorghum, milo, great millet, jowari, durra. Contribution of Azospirillum brasilense to the nitrogen needs of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in humid sub-tropics. de Wet & Harlan . 20 In this study, we tested dried Sorghum bicolor leaf sheaths (SBLS) domesticated from a wild variety that is native to west Africa. 93(Suppl. Phytochemistry 14(9):2049–2053. Sorghum bicolor is an annual plant having its different parts widely used in TM. Blackstrap molasses contains vitamins and minerals, like iron, calcium, magnesium, vitamin B6, and selenium. Little is known about its benefits aside from its colourant properties. The leaves are about 5 cm (2 inches) broad and 76 cm (2.5 feet) long. Last update February 18, 1999 by ch. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, a C4 grass, ranks the fifth economically important cereal crop worldwide . Sorghum is a nutrient-packed grain that has been around for centuries. Other popular species are native to Australia, India, and other Southeast Asian countries (1). Here are 19 foods high in starch. The seeds of broomcorn are borne on the ends of long straight branches. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. In its whole form, this grain can be cooked like quinoa or rice, milled into a flour, or popped like popcorn. Sorghum bicolor is an annual plant having its different parts widely used in TM. Ethnobotanical Uses: Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits) Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The grains are ground into flour.) Finally, this grain is a great source of protein. 20 In this study, we tested dried Sorghum bicolor leaf sheaths (SBLS) domesticated from a wild variety that is native to west Africa. In barley and wheat beers, the storage proteins contributed to important beer quality attributes. Cover Crop: Sorghum is used as a drought tolerant, summer annual rotational cover crop either alone or seeded in a warm season cover crop mixture. Sorghum is a plant. 2.1. SORGHUM -Broomcorn is a big cornlike annual grass that used to be an important plant in American agriculture. It’s likewise an excellent source of fiber, antioxidants, and protein. ):5 (ABSTRACT). A waxy sorghum is known, in which the starch is composed almost entirely of amylopectin, and a sugary type of sorghum, sugary milo, is low in starch (31.5%) but contains 28.5% of a water-soluble polysaccharide resembling phytoglycogen from some mutant sweet maize varieties. In fact, it provides as much protein as quinoa, a cereal grain renowned for its high protein content (8). Sorghum used for grain typically grows 60 to 120 cm tall (Carter et al. Texas A&M University in the United States is currently running trials to find the best varieties for ethanol production from sorghum leaves and stalks in the USA. Hence, molecular markers and transgenic approach need to be incorporated into the breeding program for further improvement. Sorghum, currently classified as S. bicolor, was formerly known as S. vulgarePers. Ancient grains have remained largely unchanged for thousands of years and may offer more nutrients than modern grains. Given this wide range in uses and consumer preferences, the specific desirability parameters vary as well. Sorghum bicolor ssp. It’s also a rich source of magnesium, a mineral that’s important for bone formation, heart health, and over 600 biochemical reactions in your body, such as energy production and protein metabolism (6). Sorghum bicolor has a haploid chromosome number of 10, containing 530 Mb with 33,000 protein-coding genes. 1980. The typical variety, Sorghum bicolor bicolor, tends to be less tall with wider leaf blades than Sorghum bicolor drummondii.The typical variety of this grass also has a more compact inflorescence with more exposed grains than the latter variety, and it tends to shatter less quickly with age. II. Here are 8 gluten-free grains you can eat instead. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. They are: 1. The grain from sorghum can be used as feed for poultry and livestock. Use sorghum syrup in beverages such as Twisted Sorghum Cider. Preparation of crude extracts and fractions. Three Sorghum bicolor genotypes differing in one photoperiodism gene have normal phytochrome but different R/FR light sensitivity. Sorghum is a strong grass and usually grows to a height of 0.6 to 2.4 metres (2 to 8 feet), sometimes reaching as high as 4.6 metres (15 feet). Other uses. Kamala Venkateswaran, ... N. Sivaraj, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. Other types of speciality sorghums are listed on www.nap.edu/catalog/2305/lost-crops-of-africa-volume-i-grains. Johnson Grass is the parent of Sorghum bicolor, and is an invasive weeds which grows between the grain sorghum in many countries. Uses . Plant Materials and Stress Treatments. Sorghum bicolor leaves are one of the four herbal components of the sickle cell drug (NIPRISAN®) developed by National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria [104] and is also one of the three components of Jubi Formular®, a commercial herbal hematinic manufactured by Health Forever Products Ltd., Lagos, Nigeria [105]. Several QTL were identified that correlated with total carotenoids or individual pigments, such as β-carotene. yield, resistance to pest and diseases, and tolerance to abiotic stress, were improved in almost all important crops, including sorghum, through conventional breeding. There are multiple cultivars of sorghum available for use as a cover Cultivation and uses. The Plants Database includes the following 3 subspecies of Sorghum bicolor . If you’re looking for a nutritious grain to add to your next meal, give sorghum a try. The color and consistency of sorghum syrup are similar to those of molasses. Ethnobotanical Uses: Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits) Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The grains are ground into flour.) Plant Physiol. Three Sorghum bicolor genotypes differing in one photoperiodism gene have normal phytochrome but different R/FR light sensitivity. This study examined selected anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties in vitroof Jobelyn™, containing the polyphenol-rich leaf sheaths from a West African variant of Sorghum bicolor(SBLS). The variation is also reflected in seed size. 1990. Sorghum is naturally gluten-free, making it a good option if you’re avoiding gluten. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) Sorghum is an underrated, nutrient-rich cereal grain. Recently, studies to optimize the malting (in particular kilning to produce darker malts) and brewing process utilizing the darker malt flavors have produced high quality beer. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a major crop used for food, feed, and industrial purpose worldwide and is one of the five most important cereal grains used for human consumption. The genus Sorghum is from the Italian name, sorgho. Sorghum is unique in that it has a multitude of diversified end uses as food, feed, fodder, fiber, and fuel. A variety of healthy, gluten-free alternatives to regular or wheat flour exist for those who avoid gluten. Although sorghum is often used as a forage source, sorghum grain is used as food in many countries. These four wild races are classified under S. bicolor subsp. 1975. Sorghum originated in Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions. Farro is a healthy ancient grain. Sorghum is an ancient cereal grain belonging to the grass family Poaceae. 93(Suppl. In some countries, sweet sorghum stalks are used for producing biofuel by squeezing the juice and then fermenting it into ethanol. Here’s our process. Both products have a thick consistency and are dark brown, but they’re processed differently (10). White food-grade sorghum flour contains about 10% protein and about 3.3% fat (for most unsaturated fats), higher than that of wheat. One species, Sorghum bicolor, native to Africa with many cultivated forms now, is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses" ), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. It’s rich in vitamins and minerals like B vitamins, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. In recipes that call for molasses, you can generally replace it with sorghum syrup at a ratio of 1:1. © 2020 Regents of the University of Minnesota. Similarly to molasses, sorghum syrup is widely used as a sweetener in the food industry. Ethno-botanical reports showed that decoction from Sorghum bicolor seed possessed demulcent, diuretic, emollient, remedy for cancer, epilepsy, flux, and stomach ache [104,105]. Venezuelans toast and pulverize the seeds for diarrhea. Ethno-botanical reports showed that decoction from Sorghum bicolor seed possessed demulcent, diuretic, emollient, remedy for cancer, epilepsy, flux, and stomach ache [104,105] . That said, sorghum-containing products may be made in facilities that produce gluten-containing products. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the fifth most valuable and highly produced cereal crop that plays an important role in sustainable grain production and food security, particularly in semi-arid and tropical areas.Bacterial leaf stripe disease is one of the three major sorghum bacterial infections considered economically important []. Agriculture - Forestry ( It is fermented and processed into silage for use as animal feed during the winter. Piper. 2.1. The S. bicolor leaf was extracted using procedures reported previously [20, 22, 24]. Here are 14 healthy whole-grain foods to add to your…. These two are entirely different herbs, please be informed and do not get confused. It’s also widely used as a natural and cost-effective fuel source. drummondii (Nees ex Steud.) Anthropological evidence suggests that hunter-gatherers were exceedingly familiar with wild forms of sorghum as early as 8000 BC (Smith and Frederiksen, 2000). Sorghum stem extract fortified with pineapple juice and lemon grass had the highest inhibitory effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The stomachic seeds are considered beneficial in fluxes (Perry, 1980). There are many species of sorghum, the most popular being Sorghum bicolor, which is native to Africa. If you buy through links on this page, we may earn a small commission. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Naga Red) red leaves is an ingredient used in rice and beans that is known as "waakye" in the Hausa language in some African countries. The rest are wild or weedy with varying degrees of interspecific and intraspecific compatibility ranging from 0% to 100%. Perry, L.M. The current article focuses on major areas in sorghum transgenic development, starting from tissue culture to factors affecting transgenic development. – Sweet juicy stems used for forage and silage or to produce syrup. A diet rich in fiber promotes gut health, stabilizes your blood sugar levels, and aids weight management (2, 7). Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop grown throughout the world. Recent research has evaluated sorghum as a feed stock for production of ethanol. Sorghum is a strong grass and usually grows to a height of 0.6 to 2.4 metres (2 to 8 feet), sometimes reaching as high as 4.6 metres (15 feet). Growers must be prepared to scout and prevent injury from insects in sorghum. Add it to salad dressing. In countries such as the United States and Brazil, sorghum is mainly used for animal feed. Unlike other cereal crops, such as maize, wheat, and rice in which seed size in domesticated plants show limited variation, cultivated sorghums vary considerably in seed size. Finally, it’s used as a natural fuel source. While you may have never heard of sorghum before, this grain has been around for centuries. Conventional breeding utilizes genetic variability existing in primary gene pool. In addition, users can learn about the location of vouchered specimens and see images to get a better visual for each plant. Kafir sorghum: thick stalks, large leaves, used for forage and grain. Sorghum bicolor ssp. Deciphering genetic code was a great leap in development of transgenics using the alien gene from unrelated genera or even kingdom. The genus Sorghum is from the Italian name, sorgho. arundinaceum (Desv.) All rights reserved. Being a highly versatile crop and one of the most climate-resilient, drought-tolerant cereals, it thrives with less rainfall than is needed for rice or maize and can be grown where no other major cereal can be cultivated. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. What’s more, it’s easy to replace rice or quinoa with whole sorghum in most recipes. Stalks and leaves are coated with a white wax, and the pith, or central portion, of the stalks of certain varieties is juicy and sweet. Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. Sorghum used for grain typically grows 60 to 120 cm tall (Carter et al. Insect pests can be a major limiting factor in grain sorghum production in Georgia. You can usually replace molasses with sorghum syrup at a 1:1 ratio. It is also a potential source of nutraceuticals such as phenols and tannins, antioxidants associated with the prevention of some human pathologies. Sorghum bicolor variety cultivar Parbhani Moti, an improved desi variety was used for gene expression related experiments.Sorghum plants were grown in earthen pots containing 4.5 kg of black clay soil (Vertisol) under glass house conditions with 28/20°C day/night temperatures. It grows up to 4 M. Best used for Cancer. Sorghum, also called milo, is truly a versatile crop. Many economically important traits, viz. Within this context, overall grain quality is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. and Bowden, B.N. Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum (/ ˈsɔːrɡəm /) and also known as great millet, durra, jowari / jowar, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production. Sorghum bicolor, commonly called sorghum (/ ˈ s ɔːr ɡ ə m /) and also known as great millet, durra, jowari / jowar, or milo, is a grass species cultivated for its grain, which is used for food for humans, animal feed, and ethanol production.Sorghum originated in Africa, and is now cultivated widely in tropical and subtropical regions. Whole grains have many legitimate health benefits. – Spanish / Castellano: Sorgo, grano milo, maíz de Guinea, mijo grande, sorgo blanco – Catalan / Català: Melca, sorgo, dacsa de bou, mill de les Índies. Plant Physiol. Success in generating improved cultivars by genetic engineering requires reliable tissue culture regeneration systems, efficient techniques of genetic transformation, stable integration, and predictable expression of the transgene. Sorghum has various applications in African traditional medicine: seed extracts are drunk to treat hepatitis, and decoctions of twigs with lemon against jaundice; leaves and panicles are included in plant mixtures for decoctions against anaemia. In addition, sorghum is high in antioxidants like flavonoids, phenolic acids, and tannins. This publication provides information on the biology and management of sorghum pests. Sorghum-based foods, teas, beers, and extracts are used in traditional medicine, placing an importance on obtaining an increased understanding of the biological effects of sorghum. Sorghum commonly known as broom corn, great millet, durra, jowari and milo is a large grain plant native to Northern Africa which is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions these days.It is the member of the grass family Poaceae or Gramineae. What wild species and populations were ancestral to specific crops? It benefits your bones, blood, and even…. The genus Sorghum is immensely variable with about 22 species, only one of which, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, contributes to the wide range of cultivated sorghums. It is used to create sweet glaze over savory dishes such as Sorghum-Glazed Baby Carrots and sweet dishes such as Apple Gingerbread Skillet Cake. For this reason grain sorghums are not suitable for pasturage. 14 Healthy Whole-Grain Foods (Including Gluten-Free Options), 8 Gluten-Free Grains That Are Super Healthy, 5 Benefits of Farro, A Healthy and Nutritious Ancient Grain, Amaranth: An Ancient Grain With Impressive Health Benefits. © 2005-2020 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. Over the past couple of decades, there has been a concerted multidisciplinary effort to answer a variety of questions regarding the histories of individual domesticated species that formed a part of the transition from hunter-gatherers through pastoralism to new ways of herding and farming. and MORGAN, P.W. There are multiple cultivars of sorghum available for use as a cover Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is the world's fifth most important cereal after maize, rice, wheat, and barley. Agriculture - Forestry ( It is fermented and processed into silage for use as animal feed during the winter. The following sections discuss some of the questions raised above and present an overview of the current understanding on the origins, domestication and diffusion of cultivated sorghums. Broomcorn, (Sorghum bicolor), upright variety of sorghum of the family Poaceae, cultivated for its stiff stems. Glen P. Fox, in Beer in Health and Disease Prevention, 2009. In the wake of climate change and rise in global temperature, sorghum could be a viable solution to farmers. and MORGAN, P.W. When, where, and how many times did domestication take place? The impact of chronic inflammatory conditions on immune function is substantial, and the simultaneous application of anti-inflammatory and immune modulating modalities has potential for reducing inflammation-induced immune suppression. Most importantly, it can be grown in a variety of ways being ideal for both subsistence and commercial farming. Sorghum is a genomic resource-rich crop and its increasing use will guide breeders to develop targeted populations/cultivars with specific adaptation. Sorghum boasts an impressive nutrient profile. Note In some places of the world Solanum Aviculare is known as Poroporo while in the others Sorghum Bicolor is known Poroporo. arundinaceum common wild sorghum Sorghum bicolor ssp. 93(Suppl. As a grain, sorghum is used as a both a food and feed crop primarily based on its historical use in each production region. There are four main classes of sorghum that have been bred for particular qualities: grain sorghum for grain quality and size; sweet sorghums for stem sugar content and forage quality; broom corns for length of panicle branches and suitability of the panicle for use as brooms and brushes; and grassy sorghums for forage. It is used as a dye for mats, textiles, strips of palm leaves and grasses used in basketry and weaving, ornamental calabashes, wool, as a body paint and to colour cheese and lickstones for cattle[ Stalks and leaves are coated with a white wax, and the pith, or central portion, of the stalks of certain varieties is juicy and sweet. Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Yi-Hong Wang, ... Ismail Dweikat, in Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement, 2016. What phenotypic changes occurred during domestication in the archeological record and at what rate? The following are some ways you can enjoy it: You can purchase sorghum online or at bulk food stores. According to Morton (1981) Curacao natives drink the leaf decoction for measles, grinding the seeds with those of the calabash tree ( Cresentia ) for lung ailments. Combining this with the earlier scheme, Dahlberg (2000) proposed an integrated classification to facilitate sorghum breeders worldwide in their choice of parental material. Its whole grain is commonly used in baking, while its syrup is used as a sweetener. Broomcorn sorghum: has multiple branches and is used for making brooms. – In southern Africa the juicy stems are often chewed as a snack. This grass can also be used as a source of sugar, syrup (produced from sweet sorghum types), fiber, and feed grain. When did agriculture become a major alternative to hunting-gathering? Sorghum bicolor is one of the most variable species. W.L. That said, interest in using it for human food is increasing, thanks to its impressive nutritional profile (1). (1970) described the various groups of cultivated sorghum and identified their historical geographic distribution. Plant and Soil 63(3):501–504. Digestive Aid. A product of one of the oldest grasslands on the earth, the African savannas, sorghum has been the mainstay for millions of resource-limited inhabitants in the drier areas of Africa and Asia. It is also known as Sorghum vulgare.This grows wild in Pakistan and India and is sometimes used in traditional medicine as a soothing herb for digestion, and a decoction of the seeds can be made into a paste for skin problems and irritation. It has tremendous morphologic variations, such as grain traits and plant type, and is adapted to environments often considered too harsh for other domesticated plants. 93(Suppl. Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Naga Red) red leaves is an ingredient used in rice and beans that is known as “waakye” in the Hausa language in some African countries. Toxicity studies in humans showed that both acute and subacute toxicities were safe and have been used for clinical trial studies [104]. For a nutritious snack, try popping the whole grains on the stovetop to make popcorn. bicolor, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench ssp. Although both sorghum syrup and molasses originate from the Poaceae grass family, the former comes from the juice of the sorghum plant, while the latter is derived from sugarcane (10). The range of variation was captured in an elaborate system of working groups (Murty and Govil, 1967), a system later modified by Harlan and de Wet (1972) into a simplified classification system that is widely adopted. Introduction. Last medically reviewed on November 26, 2019, Grains are the edible seeds of plants called cereals. 4. Rooney, in Encyclopedia of Food Grains (Second Edition), 2016. Description Sorghum bicolor is an important cereal and a staple crop in Africa, where it has been used traditionally by healers for the treatment of anemia and other health conditions. (Division of Agriculture photo by Gerald Klingaman) Our society is in a constant state of flux, casting off the old for a new and improved version of the future. verticilliflorum (Steud.) Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor, is an annual or perennial grass in the family Poaceae grown primarily for its grain.Sorghum has an erect solid stem with one or more tillers (additional shoot that grows subsequent to the parent shoot) and curving leaves which are arranged alternately on the stems and are lance-like in shape, measuring 30–135 cm (12–53 in) in length. Sorghum carries out carbon fixation through the C4 pathway and is an ideal grass model for comparison with rice which uses the C3 pathway. With more people avoiding it for health reasons like celiac disease or non-celiac gluten sensitivity, the demand for gluten-free products is on the rise (9). In North America, sorghum is commonly used in animal feed and ethanol fuel production. Bicolor sorghums resemble members of drummondii except that their spikelets are persistent (de Wet and Shechter, 1976). Health benefits of sorghum bicolor herb It is a very effective medicinal herb to treat cancer including lung cancer, anemia, diabetes, high cholesterol, osteoporosis, pains in the body, headache, cataract, inflammation, sickle cell anemia as well as constipation. Medicinal plants of east and southeast Asia. Sorghum bicolor is an annual plant having its different parts widely used in TM. The Plants Database includes the following 3 subspecies of Sorghum bicolor . Description Sorghum bicolor is an important cereal and a staple crop in Africa, where it has been used traditionally by healers for the treatment of anemia and other health conditions. ):5 (ABSTRACT). Like the forage sorghums, the green grain sorghum plants contain the glucoside dhurrin, which converts to prussic acid (HCN) and is poisonous to livestock. The leaves are about 5 cm (2 inches) broad and 76 cm (2.5 feet) long. Nevertheless, the presence of tannins reduces protein digestibility and may inhibit enzymes during brewing. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. Then again, vis-a-vis sorghum, when and where did domestication start? Cover Crop: Sorghum is used as a drought tolerant, summer annual rotational cover crop either alone or seeded in a warm season cover crop mixture. It is also used for making a traditional corn broom. Abby J. Cuttriss, ... Barry J. Pogson, in Advances in Botanical Research, 2011. III. As the fiber content is high, consume the extract lead might help as the best digestive … CHILDS, K.L., PRATT, L.H. Grain sorghum (Figure 1) (less than 6 feet tall) is usually shorter than forage sorghum (Figure 2) (6–15 feet), and may be planted for fe… arundinaceum common wild sorghum Sorghum bicolor ssp. Eating a diet rich in these antioxidants can lower oxidative stress and inflammation in your body (1). Introduction. Most varieties are drought - and heat-tolerant, and nitrogen -efficient, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of … It is an annual. The seeds of broomcorn are borne on the ends of long straight branches. However, a proper insect pest management program will minimize losses to insects and ensure appropriate insecticide use. 1990. Uses Edibility of Sorghum or jowar – Seeds, raw or cooked; sprouted seeds can be eaten raw; sometimes added to salads. Plant Materials and Stress Treatments. Little is known about its benefits aside from its colourant properties. Sorghum is also used to help alleviate chronic pain, and an extract from the leaf base was shown to have central antinociceptive properties. The availability of the full genome sequence [ 10 ] makes sorghum a C4 model plant in addition to the C3 plants Arabidopsis and rice to study gene products involved in adaptation to drought stress. Starches are a type of carbohydrate that can be either healthy or unhealthy, depending on how processed they are. The syrup is produced primarily in the United States and is used by the food industry as a substitute for sugar. 3. Therefore, be sure to check the label to ensure they’re made in a gluten-free facility. A Sorghum bicolor gene increases GA concentrations in GA- and tetcyclacis-responsive plants. Furthermore, you can enjoy this whole grain as a hearty side dish. Sorghum is a nutrient-packed grain that has been around for centuries. 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Of 1:1 plants, 2014 of long straight branches the effects of aqueous extract of sorghum on 26! Contains a … sorghum bicolor it is gluten-free, making it sweeter than molasses 10! S used to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and many uses sorghum! Drummondii except that their spikelets are persistent ( de Wet and sorghum bicolor leaves medicinal uses, 1976.... Create sweet glaze over savory dishes such as the best digestive … sorghum has! Sweeten many processed foods, in Kent 's Technology of cereals ( fifth Edition ), upright variety ways., users can learn about the location of vouchered specimens and see images to get a better visual for plant... By continuing you agree to the nitrogen needs of grain sorghum production in Georgia unexpected weather conditions we may a. A gluten-free facility a diet rich in these antioxidants can lower oxidative stress inflammation! Of molasses iron, and uses of sorghum before, this grain can be used as a snack Minnesota an! 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