Inflorescences apparently terminal or lateral, 6-15 cm long, not branched, with 1-8 flowers, 1-3 flowers open at any one time, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, unarmed; peduncle 0-80 mm long; pedicels 2-3.5 cm long in long-styled flowers, 0.8-2 cm long in short-styled flowers, erect to pendent, articulated at the base, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, with 0(-5) prickles; pedicel scars spaced 3-5 mm apart. Nees Solanum melongena var. Solanum melongena can be distinguished from S. aethiopicum by its mauve to purple corolla 2.5-5 cm wide and lobed for 1/4-1/3 of the way to the base (versus white corolla 0.8-1.8 cm wide and lobed for ca. 2013). More Accounts and Images; ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (SOME) CalPhotos (SOME) … Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence. donations to help keep this site free and up to date for 2013). 84: 1-186. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). 467, 155-162 DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.1998.467.17 A large fleshy kidney shaped berry is that ranges in color from green, to white, to purple-black when immature and when it should be eaten. Inflorescence: Solitary axillary, umbellate cyme, or helicoid cyme in Solanum. 2008. [LINN 248.28]). Uses. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) and Tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum= Lycopersicum esculentum) are the most common articles for cooking. Knapp, S., M. S. Vorontsova, and J. Prohens. Eggplant (aubergine) (English). Origin and domestication of the brinjal eggplant, Solanum melongena from S. incanum in Africa and Asia. Syst. state. Corolla 2.5-5 cm in diameter in long-styled flowers, 2.4-4 cm in diameter in short-styled flowers, white to mauve or purple, stellate, lobed for 1/4-1/2 of the way to the base, the lobes 10-15 mm long, 8-13 mm wide in long-styled flowers, 5-8 mm long and 8-13 mm wide in short-styled flowers, broad-deltate, spreading, not opening fully in long-styled flowers, sparsely stellate-pubescent abaxially, the trichomes porrect, sessile or stalked, the stalks to 0.2 mm, the rays 4-8, 0.2-0.7 mm long, the midpoints ca. * Selvamuthukumaran T, Arivudainambi S (2005) Helicoverpa armigera Hübner on brinjal, Solanum melongena Linn. In this scenario ancestors of tropical African S. campylacanthum (groups A and B) gave rise to ancestors of southern African S. lichtensteinii (group D) and northern African S. incanum s.s. (group C). As the fruit matures it gets stringy and bitter. Ann. J. Linn. Genetic analysis of quantitative traits in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) Veg. Young stems terete, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent and unarmed, occasionally prickly, with porrect, translucent, sessile or occasionally stalked trichomes, the stalks to 0.2 mm long, the rays 8-15, 0.3-0.7 mm long, the midpoints ca. evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Conservation of gene function in the Solanaceae as revealed by comparative mapping of domestication traits in eggplant. In global terms 90% of production is concentrated in China, India, Egypt, Turkey, and Japan (Lucier & Jerardo 2006). J. G. Hawkes, R. N. Lester, M. Nee, and N. Estrada, 369-387. Solanum melongena is a cultivated to semi-wild herb with large shallowly-lobed leaves with rounded lobes and large white or purple flowers, grown for its large edible white, yellow, or purple fruits. image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. Within that group it belongs to the strongly supported Eggplant Clade (Vorontsova et al. Though the basic type of ... (Solanum melongena L.) bear study of large collection from many countries hermaphrodite flowers in clusters as well as singly showed that, in 21.5% of varieties, the stigma Non-native: introduced Solanaceae. 173: 176-193. doi:10.1111/boj.12053. Sci. 102: 891–897. esculentum 'Saneness': Common Name: Brinjal, Eggplant, Aubergine Flora Zambesiaca. Flowers 4-8-merous, heterostylous and the plants andromonoecious, with the lowermost flower long-styled and hermaphrodite, the distal flowers short-styled and staminate. IV. Lester also hypothesized that escape into the wild could have led to the formation of small prickly weeds S. insanum L. (sometimes called S. undatum and S. cumingii, groups E and F, here recognized as S. insanum, see also Knapp et al. Show Monogr. Bot. To reuse an Peralta, I. E., D. M. Spooner, and S. Knapp 2008. The inflorescence is a dense, compact, branched head consisting of 50-100 flowers at the ends of branches. Eggplant origins: out of Africa, into the Orient. angustum S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena var. In India, this family is represented by 15 genera and 88 species. The characters distinguishing S. melongena from the rest of the eggplant clade are mainly those directly associated with cultivation: larger fruit, altered fruit shape and color, and lack of prickles. Also covers The first reports of the use of Solanum melongena as a … Doganlar, S., A. Frary, M.-C. Daunay, R. N. Lester, and S. D. Tanksley. Cultivated worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas (in the temperate zone under glass); the greatest diversity of landraces and cultivars is found in Asia (India, China and southeast Asia), with secondary centres in the Middle East and around the Mediterranean.. IDA-like genes were searched in relevant genera of the Solanaceae family including several species of Nicotiana (N. sylvestris, N. tomentosiformis, N. tabacum and N. benthamiana), and other crops of agronomic interest such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), potato (S. tuberosum), eggplant (S. melongena) and pepper (Capsicum annuum) (Table 1). State documented: documented Leaves simple, the blades 10-23 cm long, 9-15 cm wide, 1.5-2 times longer than wide, ovate, chartaceous, drying discolorous; adaxial surface yellow-green to red-brown, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent; abaxial surface glaucous, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, with porrect, sessile or stalked trichomes, the stalks to 0.2, the rays 5-8, 0.3-1 mm long, the midpoints ca. Copyright: various copyright holders. 2007. morphological traits of the interspecific eggplant hybrid solanum melongena x solanum torvum. Discover thousands of New England plants. Wild Solanum melongena is found in the area of Myanmar–Yunnan where it developed from the Solanum incanum complex, which had previously migrated into Asia from the Middle East and East Africa. depressum L. Solanum melongena var. Taxon 59: 49-56. cylindricum S.P.Dikii Solanum melongena var. History and iconography of eggplant. Genetics 161: 1713–1726. 2002. Seeds ca. 2006). 2002). the state. post Lasiodiplodia theobromae (PHYORH) It is a perennial plant which is commonly grown as an annual. 1991. gigantea Alef. you. Wetland Status. Solanum carolinense: inflorescence with mostly 3–6 flowers, corolla 20–30 mm wide, light purple to white, and berry 1–1.5 cm long, yellow (vs. S. melongena, with the inflorescence with 1-3 flowers, corolla 30–50 mm wide, purple to light purple, and berry 5–30 cm long, black, purple, pink, brown, yellow, or … 2013. Found this plant? Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. For details, please check with your state. Solanum melongena, commonly known as eggplant or aubergine, belongs in the plant family Solanaceae, which also houses tomato, potato, nicotine and the poisonous deadly nightshade plant. same length as the rays or elongated to 1 mm, with minute simple hairs, the prickles 1-3 mm long, less than 0.5 mm wide at base, straight, acicular, yellow-orange to dark brown, glabrous, spaced 10-50 mm apart; bark of older stems glabrescent, green-brown to dark brown. Eggplants belong to the nightshade family of vegetables, which also includes tomatoes, sweet peppers and potatoes. Vol. 2008 for a similar situation in the cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum L., and its wild progenitor, S. pimpinellifolium L.); cultivated plants are in a completely different evolutionary environment with different selection pressures than their wild progenitors. Solanum melongena L., the cultivated Brinjal egg- plant, was originally described by Linnaeus (1753) who considered plants cultivated in Asia, Africa and America. Solanum incanum s.s. is then proposed to have dispersed into Arabia and Asia, possibly aided by man because of the value of its berries for tanning hides (Bitter 1923). 1.2- Species Solanum melongena L. - Eggplant + Overview Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species in genus Solanum L. in tribe Solaneae of nightshade grown for its edible fruit. 5.  same length as the rays, unarmed on both surfaces; the primary veins 4-7 pairs, the tertiary venation visible on both surfaces; base cordate to obtuse; margins lobed, the lobes 2(-3) on each side, 0.5-2 cm long, extending 1/4-1/3 of the distance to the midvein, deltate, apically rounded; apex acute; petiole 1-10 cm long, 1/4-1/3(-2/3) of the leaf blade length, moderately stellate-pubescent to glabrescent, with 0-2 prickles. same length as the rays. However, wild species remain largely unexploited for eggplant breeding. Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. On trouve Solanum melongena à l’état sauvage dans la région du Myanmar et du Yunnan où il s’est formé à partir du complexe Solanum incanum, qui avait précédemment migré vers l’Asie à partir du Proche-Orient et de l’Afrique de l’Est. Solanaceae, the nightshade, or potato, family of flowering plants (order Solanales), with 102 genera and nearly 2,500 species, many of considerable economic importance as food and drug plants. Sepal tube is bell-shaped 1 cm in diameter. The aubergine (eggplant) is the economically most important member of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum with numerous commercial cultivars adapted to a range of tropical and temperate climates. Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Solanum melongena is a cultivated to semi-wild herb with large shallowly-lobed leaves with rounded lobes and large white or purple flowers, grown for its large edible white, yellow, or purple fruits. 8, Part 4. Nov. Regni Veg., Beih.. 16: 1-320. Domestication took place in the area between India, Myanmar and China, where many primitive or weedy eggplant types are still found. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057039. Homonyms Solanum melongena L. esculentum (Dun.) Wild relatives of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae): new understanding of species names in a complex group. Note: when native and non-native Daunay, M.-C., and J. Janick. Fruit a globular to ovoid, ellipsoid, or oblong to variously curved berry, 1 per infructescence, 3-20 cm long, 3-7 cm wide, the pericarp smooth, green, sometimes mottled or striped, white, pink, mauve, purple, or black when young, usually white or maroon at maturity, glabrous; fruiting pedicels 2.5-8 cm long, 2-4 mm in diameter at base, woody, pendulous, with 0(-5) prickles; fruiting calyx lobes elongating to 12-50 mm long, 1/4-1/3 the length of the mature fruit, often cup-shaped around the fruit in some cultivars, with 0(-30) prickles. Bot. Bot. To prevent automated spam submissions leave this field empty. Each flower has five slender finely hairy sepals 2 to 3 mm long, five white to cream star-shaped petals each about 1 cm long, five elongate yellow stamens and a central stigma. 2002; 29(1):84-86. We depend on Shimla Mirch). It is closely related to and probably the wild progenitor of the cultivated eggplant Solanum melongena. For an account of cultivation history and early illustrations see Daunay & Janick (2007). Exact status definitions can vary from state to Most commonly purple, the … Solanum melongena is a domesticate derived from S. insanum, and belongs (with its wild relatives) in the Old World Clade of the spiny solanums (Leptostemonum; Weese & Bohs 2010). Family Name: Solanaceae: Synonyms: Solanum melongena var. Chronica Horticulturae 47(3): 16-22. Spec. 2013. Most of the s… Vegetables are also obtained from Brinjal (Solanum melongena) and Bell Pepper (Capsicum frutescens var. Like the fruit crop cultivars of S. aethiopicum, it often exhibits fasciation in the flowers with an increase in the number of flower parts up to 8 and straight thick styles not exserted further than 2 mm beyond the anthers. insanum (L.) Banfi, Galasso & Bartolucci Solanum melongena var. Take a photo and Soc. Solanum melongena is a cultivated species (eggplant) that was domesticated from a wild relative that lives Asia (Solanum incanum). All rights reserved. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. African spiny Solanum (subgenus Leptostemonum, Solanaceae): a thorny phylogenetic tangle. Interpreting Wetland Status. Modern understanding of eggplant origins has its origins in work done by members of Richard Lester’s group at the University of Birmingham (Lester & Hasan 1991). Solanum melongena subsp. 2013). Accessed: 09-Oct-10. Solanum melongena can be distinguished from S. incanum by its lack of prickles or rarely straight prickles (versus curved prickles, rarely straight prickles in S. incanum) and moderate pubescence making the plant green-brown or reddish as herbarium specimens (versus dense pubescence making the plant pale yellow in S. incanum). Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Attribution. 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