Jürgen Habermas develops this line of argument by claiming that anyone participating in rational discourse reveals, through that very act, a commitment to certain values that belong to a normative notion of rationality: for instance, values such as sincerity or open-mindedness. Most people would agree that lying in court to avoid a fine is wrong, while lying to a madman to protect his intended victim is justified. And David Wong, while defending both meta-ethical and normative relativism, agrees that the former does not, by itself, entail the latter, some sort of independent principle of liberal political theory being also needed to support a non-interventionist position. The answers to these questions d… The critics of relativism thus argue that before declaring a moral difference between cultures to be fundamental we should look carefully to see whether the difference does not, at bottom, arise out of disparate living conditions or rest on conflicting factual beliefs. For example, just because bribery is okay in some cultures doesn’t mean that other cultures cannot rightfully condemn it. Relativistic views of morality first found expression in 5th century B.C.E. But no one would suggest that these differences are explained by the absence of a single, objectively superior game that everyone should play. Gilbert Harman is one of the best-known defenders of moral relativism along these lines. Descriptive relativism is the doctrine that extensive diversity exists and that it concerns values and principles central to moralities. In the centuries following, further trends in modern philosophy helped prepare the way for moral relativism by chipping away at people’s faith in the objectivity of ethics. More recently, Michael Ruse, has defended an updated version of Hume, arguing that we are conditioned by evolution to hold fast to certain moral beliefs, regardless of the evidence for or against them; consequently, we should not view such beliefs as rationally justified. the moral life of a nun is incompatible with that of a mother, yet there is no purely rational measure of which is preferable). Rorty likes to describe himself as following in the footsteps of William James and John Dewey, although his interpretation of his pragmatist predecessors is controversial. It would not follow that everyone should embrace these values. Relativists nevertheless see it as suggestive, often pointing to an analogy between moralities and religions. They all are likely to praise democracy and condemn discrimination. Often, the most important kind of self-criticism involves a demand that the ideals themselves be changed, as, for instance, when the American and French revolutions articulated new egalitarian values. They don’t wear breeches.”  The thrust of the essay is thus to criticize the ethnocentrism of the “civilized” Europeans who naively think themselves morally superior to such people. From an objectivist or realist point of view, the phrase makes little sense since what determines the truth or falsity of a statement is whether or not it accords with objective reality. For example, some nomadic cultures have considered infanticide to be morally acceptable, while in other societies it is viewed as murder. Thomas Scanlon, an even milder kind of relativist, also defends the idea that one can view another society’s moral norms as worthy of respect while still having cogent reasons for preferring one’s own. For some, moral relativism, which relativizes the truth of moral claims, follows logically from a broader cognitive relativism that relativizes truth in general. The majority is always right, even in horrible societies. Stevenson, is emotivism. It is also widely discussed outside philosophy (for example, by political and religious leaders), and it is controversial among philosophers and nonphilosophers alike. Moral judgments, say the critics of objectivism, have an irreducible evaluative component. And in both cases, it is not possible to demonstrate logically the superiority of one standpoint over the other. religious communities, homosexual cultures) than with the larger state or national society which determines what is lawfully acceptable. It explores the nature of morality and examines how people should live their lives in relation to others. As mentioned earlier, however, even some thinkers sympathetic to relativism, such as Harrison and Wong, are suspicious of the claim that moral relativism by itself necessarily entails a tolerant attitude toward alternative moralities. The Finnish philosopher and anthropologist Edward Westermarck (1862 - 1939) was one of the first to formulate a detailed theory of Moral Relativism. It is true that Nietzsche likes to rank moralities according to whether they are expressions of strength or weakness, health or sickness; but he does not insist that the criteria of rank he favors constitute an objectively privileged vantage point from which different moralities can be appraised. In Plato’sGorgias, for instance, Callicles, a student of Gorgias, argues that human laws and conventional notions about justice are at odds with what is right according to nature (which is that the strong should dominate the weak). These philosophers prepared the ground for moral relativism, which grew more important in the twentieth century due to discoveries in cultural anthropology. The claim that every society must share these basic commitments thus links up with findings in evolutionary ethics. The relativistic stance is useful, however, in helping to make us less arrogant about the correctness of our own norms, more sensitive to cultural contexts when looking at how others live, and a little less eager in our willingness to criticize what goes on in other cultures. Moser, Paul K., and Carson, Thomas L.(eds.). Moral relativism says, "It's true for me, if I believe it." 481–420 BC) assertion that "man is the measure of all things" is an early philosophical precursor to modern relativism. At most, it is merely a condition that makes diversity more likely. It is the denial of this possibility that gives moral relativism a more radical edge and is responsible for much of the criticism it attracts. According to the monotheistic religions, God’s will represents an objective moral touchstone. It is a prescriptive position adopted initially by many anthropologists reacting against the ethnocentrism characteristic of the colonial era. They do not view truth as a property that sentences possess in virtue of their correspondence to an independent reality. For instance, the current treatment of animals on American factory farms could be criticized by an American relativist who adopts the standpoint of a utilitarian committed to the minimization of unnecessary suffering. If we are merely saying that what people think about right and wrong is influenced by the cultural environment, then the claim seems banal. Defining moral relativism is difficult because different writers use the term in slightly different ways; in particular, friends and foes of relativism often diverge considerably in their characterization of it. Argues for a sophisticated form of moral relativism within limits imposed by human nature and the human condition. The relativist eschews any evaluation of other cultures’ norms in the name of tolerance; however, this attitude is actually patronizing. Some commentators have argued that Moral Relativism is not a positive ethical theory at all, because it is not normative (indicative of how things ought to be), and because it effectively reduces to mere societal law or custom, or to mere personal taste and preference. Moral relativism or ethical relativism (often reformulated as relativist ethics or relativist morality) is a term used to describe several philosophical positions concerned with the differences in moral judgments across different peoples and their own particular cultures. Gilbert Harman, for instance, holds that he can consistently affirm basic tenets of liberal morality while recognizing that his reasons for doing so may not be “motivating reasons” to someone belonging to a different moral culture, and so will have no persuasive power. Moral relativism Often the subject of heated debate, moral relativism is a cluster of doctrines concerning diversity of moral judgment across time, societies and individuals. Feelings of moral obligation provide a justification for particular beliefs and practices; but these only arise through agents being embedded in particular social groups whose moral outlook they share. Over the years moral relativism has attracted a great deal of criticism, and not just from professional philosophers. One apparent way for the relativist to avoid this objection is to point out that most societies are imperfect even by their own lights; what actually happens usually falls short of the ideals espoused. If, for instance, a society has a caste system under which one caste enjoys great privileges while another caste is allowed to do only menial work, then this system will necessarily appear just according to its own norms. In his major work, Folkways, published in 1906, Sumner argues that notions about what is right and wrong are bound up with a society’s mores and are shaped by its customs, practices, and institutions. Bernard Williams disparages with the label “vulgar relativism” the sort of thinking that simplistically infers tolerance from relativity. A good deal of the debate surrounding moral relativism has focused on its claim to exemplify and foster tolerance. From an objective, scientific standpoint one may not pass moral judgment on the beliefs and practices that inhere within a culture, although one may objectively assess the extent to which they help that society achieve its overarching goals. Relativists say we should be tolerant of beliefs and practices found in other cultures. He distinguished between matters of fact and matters of value , and suggested that moral judgments consist of the latter because they do not deal with verifiable facts obtained in the world, but only with our sentiments and … When relativists say that the truth of moral claims and the rightness of actions is relative to the norms and values of the culture in which they occur, they seem to assume that members of that culture will generally agree about the moral framework which they supposedly share. But Marx wrote little about ethics, so it is hard to pin down his philosophical views about the nature of morality and the status of moral claims. But critics of the policy see it as expressing a kind of cultural intolerance, just the sort of thing that relativism claims to counter. Moral Relativism - Is It Really Neutral? Relativist positions have been recorded for several thousand years. A further problem for the relativist thesis is that it seems not to take into account exactly how the prevailing moral norms in a society were established. And how can they argue that the prevailing norms should be changed? In its oldest and most widespread form, the idea that a moral code has objective validity rests on the belief that it has some sort of divine sanction. The untenability of moral objectivism is probably the most popular and persuasive justification for moral relativism–that it follows from the collapse of moral objectivism, or is at least the best alternative to objectivism. The existence of these universal values is easy to explain: they enable societies to flourish, and their absence would jeopardize a society’s chances of survival. These philosophers assert that if the rightness or wrongness of an action depends on a society's norms, then it follows that one must obey the norms of one's society and to … A few centuries later, Sextus Empiricus appears to have embraced a form of moral relativism, partly on the basis of the diversity of laws and conventions, and partly as a consequence of his Pyrrhonian skepticism that sought to eschew dogmatism. Geoffrey Harrison argues that while moral relativism, properly understood, is essentially a meta-ethical position about morality, the claim that we should be tolerant is one made from within a particular moral point of view; the latter does not follow the former, therefore, since they belong to different levels of discourse. The objection that relativists exaggerate cultural diversity is directed against descriptive relativism more than against moral relativism as defined above; but it has figured importantly in many debates about relativism. But, they argue, it does not follow from this that relativists cannot consistently prefer some moralities over others, nor that they cannot offer reasons for their preference. Textbooks often suggest that relativists argue from the plain fact that different cultures have different moral belief systems to a relativistic view of morality; but this is an oversimplification. You decide what's right for you, and I'll decide what's right for me. From the other direction comes the objection that relativists tend to ignore the extent to which cultures overlap and influence one another. Studies three societies to show how beliefs and practices must be understood in the context of the culture in which they occur and its dominant values. But meta-ethical relativism is not quite fully-fledged moral relativism; for one could consistently affirm it and still insist that one particular standpoint was demonstrably superior to all others. In “On Custom,” Montaigne compiles his own list of radically diverse mores to be found in different societies, and asserts that “the laws of conscience which we say are born of Nature are born of custom.” (Montaigne, p. 83). According to the moral relativist, all such attempts fail, for they all rest on premises that belong to the standpoint being defended and need not be accepted by people who do not share that point of view. Moral Relativists point out that humans are not omniscient, and history is replete with examples of individuals and societies acting in the name of an infallible truth later demonstrated to be more than fallible, so we should be very wary of basing important ethical decisions on a supposed absolute claim. This may even be psychologically unavoidable. It applies to those whose general moral standpoint affirms or entails tolerance as a value; and only these people are likely to be swayed by the argument that relativism promotes tolerance. Moral Relativism generally stands in contrast to Moral Absolutism, Moral Universalism and to all types of Moral Realism, which maintain the existence of invariant moral facts that can be known and judged, whether through some process of verification or through intuition. Moral relativism is a broader, more personally applied form of other types of relativistic thinking, such as cultural relativism. Tolerance is, of course, a central value espoused by modern liberal societies. Moral relativism has been rejected by a near unanimous number of both secular and theistic ethicists and philosophers. (iii) The relativist’s advocacy of tolerance is morally misguided since not everything should be tolerated. They assert, assume, or imply that a state of affairs is good or bad, that an action is right or wrong, or that something is better than something else. The existence of many different religions does not prove that none of them can claim to be the one true religion. Similar claims can be found in the writings of Ruth Benedict and Edvard Westermarck. The most serious objection to moral relativism is that relativism implies that obvious moral wrongs are acceptable. The 18th-century Enlightenment philosopher David Hume (… Nor can moral relativism really claim to explain the diversity of moral systems, although this claim is sometimes made on its behalf. So, relativistic thinking seems to have been in the air at the time. Relativists, however, are likely to be skeptical about the universality of these alleged implicit commitments. Moral/Ethical Relativism is a confusing topic primarily because the word relative is ambiguous; it has several different meanings in different contexts. By the same token, moral relativism can also be criticized for not allowing the possibility of moral decline, which also presumably occurs at times. 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